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Feb 2015

Hitting is about TIME. You have more than you might think!


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In baseball, without question the number that is best identified with greatness is 90. Pitchers wish to be able to throw it, hitters fear it, and parents associate it with their kid being able to buy them a new house. Because of this, I am constantly correcting parents who try to mimic this magical number in an attempt to get their 5 year old ready to hit big league pitching. To often they shorten the distance they throw batting practice from while increasing the velocity that they throw the ball to them. This may seem like a reasonable solution, and as great as it would be for a hitter to get “used to seeing” high velocity, this practice actually does more harm than good.

The reason it is bad is strictly because what coaches and parents are forgetting about is that a pitcher who is throwing 90 mph is throwing that ball from 60 feet 6 inches. At that distance it takes the ball ~0.5 seconds to get from the pitchers hand to the hitting zone (see chart below). It is also important to understand that this amount of time is
crucial for a hitter to be able to complete all the steps of a good swing. Cutting down on that time results in hitters cutting corners on their swing in order to just make contact instead of trying to drive the ball.

Without turning this into a lesson in aerodynamics, a 90 mph fastball loses ~12 mph from the pitchers hand to the plate and crosses the hitting zone at ~78 mph. It is the 78 mph which makes hitting hard throwers more difficult than softer throwers, because the faster the pitcher throws the ball from the mound, the faster the ball is going in the 1.5 ft over the plate
known as the hitting zone. Simply put the faster that the ball is traveling when the ball gets to the hitter, the less margin for error the hitter has to hit the ball, or more appropriately, the less time the ball takes to blow by them.

Unfortunately, because I am convinced that when it comes to baseball the first thought that comes to us to try to solve a problem almost always completely wrong, we conclude that we
must try to simulate this speed through the hitting zone by throwing closer and harder. The only thing this does however is drastically reduce the amount of time that a hitter has to recognize and judge the pitch’s speed and location which is usually good information to have before they start their swing. It is far more important for hitters to have the time needed to take a good swing than for them to practice having less margin for error to hit.

Take a look at the chart below to give yourself an understanding of how throwing batting practice at close distances can drastically reduce the time your hitter has to read the pitch. It may come as a surprise, but a 90 mph ball takes about the same amount of time to get to the hitting zone as a ball does during soft toss from 15 ft (which is why soft toss is a great tool for hitters to develop timing and pitch recognition).

From general observation I have noticed that most parents throw batting practice to their kids from about 35 feet away and the good news for their son is that they can only throw about 50 mph so they aren’t doing too much damage (giving their hitter 0.5 seconds to recognize and start their swing, and 0.022 seconds to make contact - almost twice as much time as the 0.013 seconds it takes for a MLB player to hit a 90 mph fastball), but if they were to move just 10 feet closer, they would cut that recognition time down to 0.35 seconds which means it will get on them faster than a ball thrown at 110 mph. The good news is that if they haven’t thrown down their bat in frustration, you will still be giving them the same generous amount of time to actually hit the ball of 0.022 seconds... but wait... isn’t that what you were trying shorten.


batting-practice-speed

After taking a look at this, try to understand that there is no such thing as simulating what it is to like to face a pitcher who throws 90 mph. The only thing that does simulates what it is like to hit off a pitcher throwing 90 mph IS a pitcher throwing 90 mph. It is always best to make sure that at your practice, your hitters are taking good swings. In order to do that, you have to make sure that you as a coach or parent are giving them enough time to do so.

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See the ball As Clearly As Possible.


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

Your eyes work like a camera... If the camera (your head) is moving, it takes blurry pictures. If they are taking blurry pictures, then how can you be able to hit the ball squarely. This is by far the most important lesson in baseball. If you can hit... you won't sit! Too many players confuse hitting with hitting with power. Hitting with power is great and a player that can hit and hit with power is a God send, a player who can hit but doesn't hit for power is a scrapper, but a player who can hit for power but can't make contact is a disappointment.

No matter how hard you swing, it only matters if that hard swing makes solid contact, because without it, it is simply a strike. When you ask most players what they think is important for them to think about when they are hitting, sometimes you will hear "Keep your eye on the ball." Though keeping your eye on the ball is important, making sure that your head is stable throughout your swing is just as critical.

Too many young hitters throw their bodies around while they are hitting which causes heads to move all over the place. Remember, if you put a camera on a tripod but you kick the tripod, the camera is still going to take blurry pictures.

Take a look at this video of Miguel Cabrera hitting. When the camera view switches to show his swing from the side take notice how stable his head is.





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If you want to Run Faster... RUN!


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

The best and easiest way to increase your speed is to simply run, or better yet... sprint. Even without an expensive speed coach, the action of running and pushing yourself will help your form. You wouldn't expect to be good at hitting without taking swings in a cage, or be a good infielder without taking ground balls, so in order to be a fast runner you need to practice running.

A very simple sprinting routine is as follows (make sure to warm up appropriately before each workout begins):

Warm-Up:
- Jog nice and easy for 0.5-1 mile
- Dynamic stretching routine (see attached video in "Stretch" tab).
- 2 to 3 40 yard build sprints starting at ~75% finishing at 100%

*Know your body... if you do not feel loose, continue warm-up drills until you are ready.

Monday and Thursday:
- 5x20 yard (walk or jog back slow)
- 4x30 yard (walk or jog back slow)
- 3x40 yard (walk back)
- 2x60 yard (walk back)
- 4x20 yard (walk back)

Tuesday and Friday:
- Jog-Sprint-Jog-Walk (10-20 minutes) (SEE DESCRIPTION BELOW...)

Sunday:
- 2 mile run


JOG-SPRINT-WALK-JOG
For this exercise, first find a relatively large flat area where you have roughly 90 ft by 50 ft, and set up 4 cones about 15 feet apart for the lanes and 60-90 feet apart for the distance.

Start in the Jogging Lane and jog to the far lane (Sprint Lane) and perform a sprint past the far cone. Then slow yourself to a jog and continue on back to the Jogging Lane. Jog around to the Walking Lane and walk at a pace where you will be rested and ready to go once you get to the Jogging Lane again and repeat by continuing your jog back to the Sprint Lane (see diagram below).

JSWJ




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Practice Perfect Timing... But prepare for being early.


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

Over 100 years ago, baseball tried to outlaw Candy Cummings from throwing his new pitch called a curveball, but unfortunately for us hitters, they failed. Once all the other pitchers in the league found out what he was doing, they started doing it too.

Hitting coaches everywhere make mistakes when they chose their words around teaching their hitters timing. When teaching timing, we often get lost in the perfect swing and forget that real life hitting is not how it is in a batting cage. The mistake isn't the fact that if you time things perfectly, you will generate the most power you are capable of, it is also the fact that you will often not time things perfectly in a game.

When talking timing, the most debatable event is your stride. Stride early... Make sure you don't stride too early... Don't stride at all... Whatever your hitting coach is telling you... The one truth that I have found through my own experience as well as helping other hitters is simple. Though it is ideal for us to complete our stride with perfect timing (which is roughly when the ball is halfway to us), we will still be able to hit if we stride early. Striding late however is a whole different story.

Practice perfect timing so that when you are on time your body explodes on that puss the pitcher just served up, but even more importantly is to practice being fooled with your timing. Practice staying loose and relaxed when you stride early. If you partner that with keeping your body from completely drifting up over your front foot you will be able to attack even the dirtiest off speed pitches.





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Balance is everything when trying to throw.


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Next time you go to a Major League game go early enough to watch the players warm up. As they are throwing, you will notice that after they release the ball, their back foot rarely ever touches the ground but holds in the air with the player balanced on their front leg. More often than not, you will see that instead of spinning and stepping forward with their back leg, they will step back placing it back down where they originally pushed off from. They can do this simply because they are balanced not only when they are over their drive leg preparing to throw, but also balanced over their plant leg after they have thrown the ball.

christy-mathewson


A great way to fix your throwing mechanics is to focus on being balanced not only on your drive leg while preparing to throw, but also on the plant leg after you have thrown. Getting players to focus on being balanced after they have thrown a ball is a great way to solve problems in mechanics even without focusing on them.

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Get the ball to carry.


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

Another heavily debated topic relates to the fact that a ball which is spinning with "backspin" will travel farther. Anyone who debates that fact is wrong. They can argue how to create it, but it is a scientific fact that a ball which is spinning with its lower section pushing against the air rushing towards it will create lift, and even though it isn't much, will defy gravity.

I am now an engineer, and for a fluid dynamics experiment in college I chose this topic. The experiment was simple, me and my group took a 2-wheel machine and shot some baseballs through it. We tested three different scenarios. The first being with the top wheel spinning faster than the bottom (creating a 12-6 curveball), the second being both wheels spinning at the same speed (creating a knuckleball - don't be dumb enough to set up a machine like this and try to hit because it is very dangerous), and the third being the bottom wheel spinning faster than the top (creating a typical fastball).

For each type of pitch we ensured that the angle did not change, and we used a radar gun to make sure that each pitch was exiting the machine at ~80 mph to ensure that the velocity was also the same. The test was simple... we would measure both the time the ball was in flight as well as the distance the ball traveled. Now I am not trying to insult you but gravity works the same on every object. Unless an object is firmly resting on something preventing it from being pulled toward the center of the Earth, it will accelerate at a rate of 32.2 ft/sec2. Which means after 1 second without an upward force stopping it, any object (even a baseball being thrown 100 mph) is moving 32.2 ft/sec (22 mph) toward the ground (and falling faster and faster for every second following until it hits the ground). We also recorded the time it would take for a baseball to hit the ground if it were simply dropped from the pitching machine height.

The results shouldn't surprise anyone that the 12-6 curveball landed the earliest and traveled the shortest distance (landing faster than the baseball we simply dropped from the same height). The knuckleball landed a little farther and, though it was expected, landed in the same amount of time it took for our dropped ball. Finally the ball with backspin landed quite a bit farther than the other two and also defied gravity by staying in the air longer than our dropped ball.

All that is simply to explain that creating backspin on a baseball (either thrown or hit), the ball will travel farther. So the more difficult part of this discussion is to inform you how to do it. There are those who argue that you must swing down, others say you need to have a level swing, and others (Ted Williams included) who feel you need to match the path of the ball which is slightly upward. Although I do have a preference, all three can create backspin on a baseball. The important step is really to allow the ball travel into the zone so that you can drive through it as explained in "Make Contact in a Strong Position."

Attached below are some slow motion HR Derby swings which you will see examples of guys hitting down through the baseball, making contact more level, and guys who flat out are getting underneath the ball.






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Create Torque


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Bryce-Harper-and-Jayson-Werth-make-an-ideal-combination-in-line-up-for-Washington-Nationals-MLB-188905_93

Muscles work like rubber bands... They stretch and they contract... And much like rubber bands when they are stretched they tend to want to snap back to a more relaxed position. If you think of your abdominal muscles simply as a bunch of rubber bands attaching your lower body to your upper body it is easy to understand the concept of generating torque through a process called kinetic linkage. The kinetic linkage concept is based on the coordination and specific order of movements to maximize the energy exerted at its completion.

When applied to baseball, the order of events is simple. Everything starts from the ground up. This means that the fist movement of your actual swing (not your set up/stride) would be with your lower half. For most of us this means we start our rotation with our back leg which in turn will start our hips. If our hips lead our upper body and our upper body is loose and relaxed (much like the end of a whip) we will create a little angle of separation between our upper and lower body (and if you are still thinking of our abdominal muscles as rubber bands) which in turn will generate torque.

This concept is much easier to feel than it is to see. Everything in hitting happens very fast, and though if you are really looking close you will more often than not see that the first movement from a Major League Hitter (once his stride foot is planted) is to create this angle of separation from his lower half to his upper half. However, this is one of those things which I will encourage you to try, because as difficult it may be to see this movement while looking at video, it is very easy to feel. I relate the feeling to a cartoon I once saw showed a hitter who spun their lower half around several times before he unleashed a devastating swing. As crazy as it sounds, it does feel like that. Try it for yourself.

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Be able to hit with a stripped down version of your swing.


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

More often than not, when you are in a slump, it is your setup and not your swing that is out of whack. A broken setup can be catastrophic to a hitter, making it virtually impossible to be able to hit live pitching. All of the little things we add to our swing to help generate momentum and additional power, are extremely effective when we are on time, however, when our timing is off with any one of these items it is difficult to fix them without a bunch of trips to the batting cages. And even then without someone who knows what they are looking for helping you, it can be difficult to fix simply because batting cage pitches aren't exactly the same as "Live Pitching".

One of the best ways to "feel" what is wrong is to be able to be able to hit without all those extra mechanical items. Even if it is only for drills and practice, hit without a stride and pay attention to your body. If you get 20 swings during your batting practice take 5 without a stride, if you get 10 swings take 2 or 3. Often, you can tell how good of shape your swing is in by how difficult it is to hit without a stride (not saying you will like it, but you will be able to hit if your swing is sound). Hitting without a stride will allow you to feel your body a little better, you will be able easily
stabilize your head and it should be very easy to make solid contact.

After regaining control of your body by hitting without a stride, slowly add back all the additional items, start with hands loading, then a simply stride, etc...




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Nothing is more important than Solid Contact


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Imagine you had the most powerful swing in all of baseball. Imagine you had more bat speed than Bryce Harper, you were stronger than Mark McGuire, and you have the best bat money can buy. Now, imagine with all these amazing gifts, every ball you hit is off the end of the bat, or you flat out miss. How much power would you have?

There are many contributing factors to hitting the ball with power. The most important of which is typically the most overlooked. It does not matter how much bat speed you have, or how strong you are, or even the type of bat you use, IF YOU DO NOT HIT THE BALL OFF THE GOOD PART OF THE BAT, THE BALL DOES NOT GO ANYWHERE! Too many times I see hitters step into a batting cage and struggle to make contact because all they are thinking about is swinging hard. It doesn't even don on them that they just missed 7 straight balls thrown from a machine at roughly the same location and the same speed. Good contact
IS something that can be improved! Therefore, the first thing a hitter should do in order to develop power is master all the skills involved in getting the barrel on the ball more often.

I am not telling you that after you have honed your skills on making good contact you don’t need to worry about learning to develop using your body with power, but I am telling you that a player with a good swing that never makes contact isn’t a hitter by definition, and will find himself on the bench.

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Work on Strengthening your Shoulder


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

This is the most polarizing topic lately in baseball because there appears to have been some amazing developments in getting players to throw harder. A program developed by Tom House has many players claiming they have found the key to throwing harder than they have ever before. To most in the baseball world, the debate isn't if it works, but more so whether it is safe.

I know I just opened the cookie jar and turned around and left the room, but the details of this program need to be provided to you by someone who really knows what they are doing, and not someone who watched a couple of youtube videos. What I will tell you is something that was told to me a very long time ago and I still believe to this day. If you were to race a Corvette and Chevy Aveo inside a gymnasium, the car with the best brakes would win. The theory goes that your shoulder will only allow itself to generate the amount of velocity that it can safely stop. Therefore, if you make your brakes better, you will be able to throw harder.

Work on building up strength in the back of your shoulder with motions that are reverse of the motion of throwing. Remember this is your throwing arm and a year of sitting out because you tore something isn't worth not playing. Especially since the majority of the people reading this will end their careers at their high school graduation. Even for those of us who play much longer, I can assure you after it is done, it feels too short.

Below are some examples of exercises which are great examples of strengthening the braking muscles of your shoulder.






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Drive through the ball.


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Baseball is not Golf! A golf ball weighs no more than 1.62 oz. and a golf club weighs roughly 11 oz. (for a club to ball weight ratio of 6.8:1). A baseball weighs 5 oz. and a bat is somewhere around 30 oz. (for a bat to ball weight ratio of 6:1). Though it may not seem like a big deal, the average baseball bat would have to be 34 oz. to be able to achieve the same weight ratio of club/bat to ball as golf. And that would only be for hitting a ball of the tee.

Unfortunately, in baseball we have to overcome the extra force that a baseball is exerting on our bat from being thrown at 90 friggen miles per hour. Everyone forgets about how much force this exactly is until it hits them in the side of the ribs and we remember how much a thrown baseball hurt. It hurts because it is exerting force on us. It is important to understand that the same amount of force is being exerted on our bat each time we make contact. In a sense, unlike the golf ball, a baseball fights back! In order to make sure that our bat accelerates through the ball we need to make sure we are not completely out of juice at the initial contact point.

Think of your swing like it were a boxers punch. If a boxer were to stand far enough away from his opponent to where he would make contact with him at the exact point where his arm were fully extended, although he would be making contact at the moment his fist was moving its fastest, his strike would do hardly more than sting a little bit. Now take that same boxer and allow him to hit his opponent one foot closer, his arm will be able to continue to extend and drive him backward. Hitting a baseball is very similar.

contact_position

When we think of hitting a baseball in the same way a boxer would about hitting his opponent, it becomes much easier to understand. Making contact with the baseball when our arms are extended is not the ideal position to hit. In order to drive the baseball, we need to make contact and drive through it.

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Build an Explosive Lower Body


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

Your body has two types of muscle fibers, and each has a different use. Slow twitch muscles are the workhorses which are very durable and reliable. They are capable of doing low to moderate activity over a very long period of time. The second type is fast twitch which is used in explosive movements. Oddly enough though baseball is viewed to many as slow paced, it is almost completely utilizing the fast twitch muscle fibers in your body. Every activity on a baseball field typically involves utilizing high intensity activities over a very short period of time.

For the purposes of building speed, we will be focusing on developing the fast twitch muscles in our lower body (though training your entire body for explosive activities is essential for a complete baseball player). Several exercises have been proven to be beneficial for increasing speed, and many can be done without a membership to a gym.

1. One Legged Triple Jump.
This exercise is intended to be measured for distance and recorded for comparison in the future.



2. Box Jump.



3. Plyometric Deadlift (One Legged Deadlift Jump).


Best Leg Exercise For Explosive Power by greenfithealth

4. Standing Broad Jump.




These are only a few examples of drills that can be done to help improve your explosiveness. Do your own research and add in your favorites.




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Make your first step One Step... Not Two.


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

This is another "Hot Topic" in baseball lately simply because there is a little truth in both methods. However, this is one area where I feel that what was taught historically is still the best way.

Too often than not when a player is starting from a base running position, they will take their right foot and they will step toward their left foot (in the completely opposite direction of where they want to go). They do this in order to try to get their center of gravity over their feet which is what they need to do in order to use the drive from their legs to propel them toward the direction they want to go. Though counterintuitive, the first move when starting from a base stealing position isn't a step at all, but a fall.

In the time it would take for the untrained player to take his reverse step to get his weight over his legs, a trained player would have thrown his upper body over his right leg to achieve the same position only 3 feet further to his goal.

Now you will find hundreds of videos from old men dressed in baseball pants telling you that they now look at the tapes and see that all base stealers take a drop step when they take off. However, I would argue that what they are seeing and what they are saying the base runner is doing is not exactly the same. Now, I will admit that if you look up videos of major leaguers stealing bases and all you are looking at are the base runners feet, it will
appear that he is taking a step back before going forward. However, I would also argue that if you look at their upper body you would see it being pushed over his right foot which he is rotating (maybe taking a slight step back to turn his foot) in order to allow for his left leg to drive straight toward the next base.

Often times this new basis for why the step back method is the revolution of these coaches is flawed on two accounts. First they are misrepresenting the crossover movement, and second they are often using really fast guys as their models.

First let me explain that the crossover move that I prefer is not you throwing your left leg and arm over your right foot, but for you to drop your upper body over your right leg to achieve the "Sprinters Position" that you would be trying to achieve by dropping your right leg (again, only 3 feet further). See the below video which shows in slow motion exactly what I am talking about.



Secondly, almost every video I found proclaiming that the drop step is the preferred method is with a video of a big leaguer who is
really fast. Let me be the first to inform you that if you run a sub 6.5 sixty yard dash, you will be able to get away with a few minor mistakes. However, if you look at the tapes closely, often times you will see that though it does appear that their foot is taking a reverse step and more often than not, they are simply rotating their right foot, and their first move is mostly their upper body falling over their lead leg. Below is one such video which is a good example.




Honestly, either way has some basis as to why it works and is better than the other method. I have found that after teaching it correctly, the crossover method worked best for my players as well as myself, but it is easy enough to test for yourself. Get out there and try both, however, I would argue against trying to use a stopwatch. Try the tennis ball drop test. For those of you who do not know what the tennis ball drop test is, it is pretty much how it sounds. Have a friend stand roughly 10-15' away from you (while you are standing in a base stealing position), and extend his arm out to his side parallel to the ground with a tennis ball in his hand. When he drops the ball, you take off and try to catch the ball before hit bounces for the 2nd time. The below video gives an example, only the runner should be standing in a base running position (as if the ball being dropped was 2nd base), and the guy dropping the ball should not throw it down (simply drop it).







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Hit from an Athletic Position


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This one is very simple... In any sport you play, the more often you are in an athletic position, the better you will do! Hitting is no different. This means, when we hit, we shouldn't be too narrow, nor too wide. An athletic position is somewhat unique to everyone, though it is always wider than shoulder width. The easiest way to find yours is to simply pretend you are fielding a ground ball or playing defense in basketball. The width that your feet go when you go to field a ground ball is your athletic position. You will also notice that while you are pretending to field that ground ball your chest will line up directly over your knees which will also be directly over the balls of your feet.

DeeGordonStanceMay62013

Starting out your stance in an athletic position will help ensure that your body won't have to make any quick jerky movements to get itself into an athletic position in order to take your swing. Often I find that hitters who are in slumps are guilty of straightening up their upper body such that their knees are over the balls of their feet, but their chest isn't. Then their first movement (which they are unaware of) is to throw their upper body over their knees while they are trying to stride or load causing some difficulties at picking up the ball early.

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Build Core Strength for Baseball.


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

As it is for most movements in baseball, throwing is explosive, and this explosion starts with your legs and moves up through your core. Since we discuss building explosion in our legs already in the “Increase Running Speed Blogs,” we will focus on the development of our core strength here.

Core strength is key to all functions on the baseball field. Work on twisting! Crunches are great... but to develop the core strength that you need, you will need to get comfortable using a medicine ball. Medicine ball tosses, medicine ball chops, whatever you decide to do, it is beneficial. Below are some examples of what other players are already doing.











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Want to throw Harder? Create Torque!


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example_hipsrotatingbeforeshoulders_timlincecum_2007_035

Much like with hitting, in order to generate more power in our throwing, we need to create torque between our lower half and our upper body. Some players stumble upon this early and easily, and others have to work hard at it. This can be difficult once again simply because our eyes tend to play tricks on us when we watch Major Leaguers do things. Often the biggest mistake players make while throwing is to not get their front foot down in time, and they try to release the ball at the same moment when their front foot lands.

In order to be able to create the torque required to throw harder, you need to make sure that even though you are driving your momentum forward, your front foot gets down while your weight is on your back leg. This is a very simplified explanation, but we are simply talking about throwing not pitching and though they are very similar, they are not exactly the same. Take a look at some of these throws from outfielders and see if you can notice the sequence of their foot landing then their arm coming forward.





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Stretch to get FASTER


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JoshuaPerich Bio-2

No... I'm not talking about what we all used to do before Gym Class, and I'm not trying to get into the war between those who think stretching before competition is the key to success and health or those who believe it is a completely out of date philosophy passed down to us by the same guys who also used that crazy belt vibrating machine. I'm talking about increasing flexibility to increase stride length and increase stroke distance from your drive leg.

Fat-Belt-3


Think about it... If you can increase your flexibility which in turn lengthens your stride by 1" per stride, it could make a pretty big difference. Now, we will keep this math fairly simple, and we will deem the time it takes to take a longer stride as being negligible, but on average a runner's stride at his peak is ~1.14 to1.17 times his height. Therefore a 6' tall man would take on average an 82" stride during the peak of his sprint. Over 60 yards, that would mean he is taking more than likely ~30 strides (including a few extra strides to get up to speed). If that man were capable of running a 60 yrd sprint in 7.0 sec, that would mean he is taking roughly 0.233 second per stride, and if each of those 30 strides were 1" farther, that would mean he would be able to cover the same 60 yards in only 29.58 strides. Though it does not seem like much, that 0.42 fraction of a stride saved at 0.233 seconds per stride, calculates out to 0.1 seconds. That would mean that this player now runs a 6.9 second 60 instead of a 7.0, and though it does not seem like much, to many coaches and scouts being a sub 7 can be a deal maker.

Hip Flexor Stretch-resized-600

Try to increase flexibility in all the muscles of your legs, however, focus on hip flexors and hamstrings since these muscles are key to increasing stride length and the drive of each stride. Though it sounds crazy but the focus should be on your back leg (drive leg) when increasing stride not your front leg. Whether it be with static stretching or dynamic stretching (see attached video below), do your research and gain that extra inch on your stride.




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